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Updated: January 23, 2010 11:40 am

Allthough the essence of Paramatma is accepted of speculative knowledge, but it is not at all possible to have direct knowledge of Paramatma through intelligence and philosophy. It is not as good as pot and cow which we can directly show to anybody. Still there is applied philosophy in our Vedas and other scripturs through which one can acquire self knowledge. Through self knowledge one can ascend to the zenith of non duel existence. Up to this, discussions have been made regarding Paramatma taking Nyaya philosophy and intellectual applications. This type of knowledge is very insignificant and limited so far Paramatma is concerned.

            But, what is that applied subject through which one can search out the exact root of existence of the Supreme soul or Paramatma? There is a wide gap between philosophical knowledge and direct knowledge regarding Paramatma. This chapter throws a light upon the process through which one aquires ultimate knowledge of Paramatma and gets salvation. With this particular aim, this chapter proclaims that he, who is sanguine of ultimate salvation should do away with all desires.

            The question put by Usatsu in the previous chapter and the question put by Kohala in this chapter are the same in the behaviourist angle. So naturally we are put under dilemma as to whether both of them have put the same question regarding Paramatma or they are in quest of the properties and behavior of both Paramatma and individual soul separately. After deep summary over the perplexity, we may take in mind that the question in this chapter opens a room to query the real nature of Paramatma and to achieve the same through complete dedication. The subject matter in last chapter deals with existence of Paramatma beyond corporeal body. Both of them have given emphasis that he who knows Paramatma becomes Paramatma himself ultimately. So in this chapter, in order to enlighten the ways and means for getting Paramatma, the question of Usasta has been repeated here again.

            In Upanisad there is a lesson of association of meditation with the procedure of worship, material attraction and its excitement, condition of a boundless soul, condition of a soul taking rebirth, prize for a soul having high dignity of virtue and universal existence of Paramatma. This chapter tells us the way towards salvation which one can aquire through regular and strained efforts.

            Kohala, the son of Kasitaka, asked him, “Yajnavalkya”, said he, “explain to me the Brahman, that is immediate and direct, the self that is within all! This is yourself that is within all.” “Which is within all,Yajnavalkya?” That which transcends hunger and thirst, grief, delusion, decay and death. Knowing this very self the Brahmanas renounce the desire for son, for wealth, and for the world, and lead a mendicant’s life. That which is the desire for son is the desire for wealth, and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for worlds, for both these are but desires. Therefore the knower of Brahman having known all about scholarship, should try to live upon that strength which comes of knowledge, having known all about this strength and scholarship, he becomes a meditativeness and its opposite, he becomes a knower of Brahman. How does that knower of Brahman behave? Howsoever he may behave, he is just such. Except this, every thing is possible. Thereupon, Kohala, the son of Kusitaka, kept silent.

            In this fifth chapter, Yajnavalkya has given answer to the question of Kohala regarding supreme knowledge and also about one who has acquired supreme knowledge. No doubt that Yajnavalkya has narrated here as to what happens to one who has digested the knowledge all about paramatma and mode of living of such man in the after full realisation of the eternity. He surpasses the three qualities those are satva, Raja and Tamma. He is above all social and spiritual existence. He realises that there occurs attraction and repulsion within the matters of organs only due to the presence of atman. That atman is the paramatma and the same dwell within entire universe. After receipt of the supreme knowledge, the relative difference that appears in the universe gets completely melted. The experienced truth and the truth undo the delirium of maya (under the shadow of ignorance) are felt with at the state of awaking and sleeping respectively, but they do not find place at the state of deep sleep (suspti) . He does have the firm belief that these are nothing but manifestation of paramatma, who is ever present and ever glittering. For all times his remote sanetity prevails. He remains constant for all times That is at present, past, and future. Before creation He was There, during creation He is here and after the great universal annihilation He remain unchanged, unmoved, and disturbed.


What is the cause of this Universe ? How it is related to the Supreme cause ? Particularly in this chapter the aforesaid subject has been discussed. The residue of the discussion is that the Brahman is the ultimate cause of the Universe. The course of the discussion arrived in to the point that the Brahman and the Universe are in different in nature. However it is told that the Brahman is the cause and the Universe is its effect. But in reality cause and its effect are on same footing. Like Ocean and its waves earth and earthen pot . Only because of the presence of the cause its effect becomes tangible. Other wise the effect does not have any meaning. Without earth and string, there is no possibility of earthen pot and cloth respectively. Only for this reason cause is not different from its effect.

            Some says, without fire there is no smoke. So fire is the cause and this smoke is its effect. If this be so, fire must find place in smoke. But this does not happen. So naturally the smoke is not the effect of fire. Smoke is made possible only due to the moisture within the fire wood. There is keen relation between fire wood and smoke. One is able to know the quality and type of tire wood from its smoke.

            The effect is well wrapped with its cause and the Finite Universe is within well coverage of infinite Paramatma. This is the theme of this chapter. The principle of cause and its effect is being exercised in this relative Universe. The same law does not at all leave a print on Paramatma. This is due to the fact that Paramatma is above cause, time and space.

            Now this chapter begins with the question of Gargi, the daughter of Vacaknu, to Yajna valkya. She said, ‘Yajnavalkya’, since all this here is woven like warp and woof, in water, On what, pray, is water woven like warp and woof ? ‘On air,’O Gargi’. On what, them is air woven like warp and woof ? ‘On the worlds of the sky, ‘I Gargi’. On what them, pray , are the worlds of Gandharvas wovem, ‘like warp and woof ? On the worlds of the sun’ , ‘ O Gargi’. ‘ On what, then is air woven like wrap and woof? ‘On the worlds of the sky’, ‘ O Gargi’. On what then, pray, are the words of the sky woven, like warp on woof ? ‘On the worlds of Gandharvas, ‘O Gargi’.’On what then pray, are the worlds of Gandharvas woven, like warp and woof?’ On the world sun, ‘O Gargi’. On what then, pray , are the worlds of the sun woven, like warp and woof ? ‘The worlds of the moon, ‘O Gargi.’On what then pray, are the worlds of the moon woven like wrap and woof “ On this world of the ‘O Gargi’. ‘ On what then pray are the worlds of this stars woven like warps and woof’. On the worlds of the gods , O Gargi ‘. ‘On what then pray worlds of the gods Woven like wrap and woof ? On the worlds of Indra O Gargi’. On what then pray at the worlds of the Indro Woven like wrap and woof’. On the worlds of the prajapati , O Gargi.’ On what then pray at the worlds of Prajapatiwoven , like wrap and woof ? ‘ On the worlds of the Brahman ,’O Gargi. ‘On what then, pray are the worlds of the Brahman Woven like wrap and woof On this, Yajnavalkya said,’ Gargi’, do not question too much, lest your head fall off. Verily you are questioning too much about a divinity about which we are not to ask too much. Do not,’ ‘O Gargi’, question too much disregarding the proper method of enquiry in to the nature of the deity(Sutra), That is, do not try to know through reference about a deity that must be approached only through personal instruction from the respective teacher (Sadguru). There upon Gargi, the daughter of Vacaknu, kept silent.

            Gargi went on questioning to Yajanavalkya in the system of warp and woof surpassing Hiranyagarva. Beyond Prajapati there is nothing to put question. Gargi was well versed with the knowledge of Nyaya philosophy. With the help of this knowledge she began to argue. But the range of the philosophy can never harmonise with the supreme knowledge of Brahman. One ,who is Sanguin of knowing Brahman through intelligence and philosophy, fails seriously. It is as good so falling off the head, as remarked by Yajnavalkya to Gargi. The only way, to take in Brahman, is to follow strictly the advices of his Teacher (Sadguru).


By Kamala Kanta Acharya

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