Technology: Road To Development
Explosion of knowledge and information, based on breathtaking advancement in the field of science and technology, has bestowed on man powers enviable even for gods. It has helped man conquer space and time. Now he has unraveled many mysteries of nature and life and is ready to face new challenges and move forward in the realm of the unknown and the undiscovered.
In India there has been a long and distinct tradition of scientific research and technological advancement since ancient times. Since independence, we have accelerated our speed and efforts in this field and have established many research laboratories, institutions of higher learning and technical education. The results have been such as would make anybody’s heart swell with pride, confidence and a sense of fulfillment. The best, however, is yet to come.
The central and state governments, various public and private sector establishments are engaged in scientific research and technological development to take the nation on the path of rapid development, growth and prosperity. There are about 200 research laboratories spread all over the country. The institutions of higher learning, and universities, the modern temples of learning, are all committed to taking the country forward. They are well equipped and staffed to secure for the people of the nation all the blessings and benefits that can accrue from the acquisition and application of scientific knowledge and technology. But there is no room for complacency, for, in this field only the sky is the limit and we are yet a developing country.
Our technology policy is comprehensive and well thought out. It aims at developing indigenous technology to ensure efficient absorption and adoption of imported technology suitable to national priorities and availability of resources. Its main objective is attainment of technical competence and self-reliance, leading to reduction in vulnerability in strategic and critical areas. With a view to strengthening our economy and industrial development, our government has introduced many structural reforms through adoption of a new industrial policy which has an important bearing on the programmes of development pertaining to science and technology. Consequently, technology has become our mainstay enterprise and now we have built a strong and reliable infrastructure for research, training and development in science and technology.
On May 11, 1998, India successfully test fired the Shakti-I nuclear weapon at the Indian Army’s Pokhran Test Range in Rajasthan in an operation led by aerospace engineer and the late President Dr APJ Abdul Kalam. Two days later, the country successfully tested two more nuclear weapons as a part of the same Pokhran-II/Operation Shakti initiative (Pokhran-I was the 1974 test firing of the ‘Smiling Buddha’ nuclear weapon). Following this, the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee declared India a nuclear state, making it the sixth country to join the ‘nuclear club’ of nations and the first one that was not party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)– an international treaty signed by the US, Russia, the UK, France, and China which aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and hopes to achieve nuclear disarmament. Becoming the world’s sixth nuclear state wasn’t the only feat India achieved on that day. The country’s first indigenous aircraft, the Hansa-3, was flown in Bengaluru, while the nuclear tests were being conducted in Rajasthan. Developed by the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), a Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) lab, the Hansa-3 was a light two-seater general aviation plane used in flying institutes for pilot training, sports, surveillance, aerial photography, and environment-related projects.
That isn’t all. May 11, 1998 was also the day on which the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) completed the final test-fire of the Trishul missile after which it was inducted into service by the Indian Army and Indian Airforce. A short-range, quick-reaction, surface-to-air (SAM) missile, Trishul was a part of India’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme – a Ministry of Defence initiative that has resulted in the creation of the Agni, Prithvi, and Akash missile systems.
Based on these tremendous breakthrough achievements by the country’s scientists, engineers, and technicians, Atal Bihari Vajpayee declared May 11 the National Technology Day. Every year since 1999, the Technology Development Board (TDB) commemorates the day by honouring technological Innovations that have positively impacted the nation. The TDB also selects a theme for each year’s event, and the 2017 National Technology Day Theme was ‘Technology for inclusive and sustainable growth’.
Celebrated as a symbol of quest for scientific inquiry and technological creativity, and their translation into the integration of science, society, and industry, the National Technology Day sees the TDB conferring National Awards on the most noteworthy individuals, institutions, and businesses of the year. It is a large-scale event which sees the Department of Science and Technology, Department of Bio-Technology, the Ministry of Earth Sciences, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, and several other scientific departments in attendance. The event, conducted in New Delhi, also sees India’s President give out the National Awards and launch a range of innovative products as the Chief Guest. Furthermore, several state governments organise local events that see academic institutions, research organisations, and NGOs come together to generate awareness about the latest technological advancements in the country.
Development is required in every nation in all aspects and for development to happen, science and technology go hand in hand. Basically science is known as the study of knowledge, which is made into a system and depends on analysing and understanding facts. Technology is basically the application of this scientific knowledge. For any successful economy, particularly in today’s quest for knowledge based economies, science, technology and engineering are the basic requisites. If nations do not implement science and technology, then the chances of getting themselves developed becomes minimal and thus could be even rated as an undeveloped nation. Science and technology is associated in all means with modernity and it is an essential tool for rapid development.
Modernization in every aspect of life is the greatest example of implementation of science and technology in every nation. With the introduction of modern gadgets in every walk of life, life has become simple and this is possible only because of implementation of science and technology together. Without having modern equipment in all sectors, be it in medicines, infrastructure, aviation, electricity, information technology or any other field, the advancement and benefits that we face today would not have been possible.
A nation who is not able to prosper on these grounds would never be able to sustain the lives there and may have to solely depend on other nations for the basic requirements. Such is the influence of science and technology for the development of a nation.
For every nation to get developed, the application of both science and technology has to go hand in hand. Villages are developed into towns and towns into cities and cities are expanding to greater horizons. This expansion has occurred through the expansion of science and technology over the years passed and will be more in the coming years.
In September 2015, in a break with tradition, Prime Minister Narendra Modi met the 30 top scientists in the country and discussed with them the problems and possibilities in their area of expertise. Indian prime ministers usually meet only a scientific advisory group, and the discussions are mainly restricted to broad areas of policy. Modi’s meeting was also surprising for many given that as PM, his engagement with the scientific community had not been very active. He is yet to constitute the Scientific Advisory Council. In recent decades, Indian science has been going through a deep structural change. Scientists are increasingly willing to work on industrial and social problems and bring their research to the market through useful products. However, this change has been driven more by individuals and less by institutions or policy. Modi’s meeting with the scientists gave the impression that the Prime Minister is keen to use science for national transformation, leveraging it in national missions like Swacch Bharat that seems to have little direct relationship with research.
Despite the limited contact with scientists, Modi had taken an interest in space technology almost immediately after he took over as PM. He pushed other ministries to work with the space department on applications of space technology. Science departments too were part of this exercise, and there is a new sense of cooperation in science now.
Amidst this cooperation, the central tenet of scientific research seemed set to change a bit. Instead of asking what India can do for science, it’s now what science can do for India. This means emphasising translational research — the enterprise of translating knowledge from basic sciences to develop new treatments — a neglected part of science in India. While this is happening naturally as new institutions recruit young faculty, new government schemes are being created for scientists to push the envelope and bridge the gap between the lab and industry. India had a crisis in R&D as research was not getting to the market. Modi’s direct meeting with scientists may have been the result of relentless criticism of how science is run in the country. The Modi government had inherited a problem of scientific leadership, which was made worse by inaction for more than a year. His insistence on getting young leaders also created difficulties for those in charge of recruitment, as a crop of young science leaders were not available on demand. Major scientific institutions remained headless for a long time. With Modi relaxing his stance a bit, probably temporarily, this problem is slowly beginning to be solved. Prime ministerial attitudes to science have had a big impact on how it flourished in the country. Prime ministers such as Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi were big supporters of science with high regard for those working at a level of excellence. They also believed in supporting basic research as much as the country’s finances allowed. Senior scientists say Morarji Desai had no respect for science or for scientists. PV Narasimha Rao believed that scientists had not delivered and decided to shock the system by cutting funding. Atal Behari Vajpayee reversed the trend of declining science funding. He grew the scientific establishment significantly by starting new institutions, an act that was continued by Manmohan Singh. Science went through a golden period of generous funding and freedom. Even so, the last few years have been difficult for research labs in India. The government cut funding in consecutive years and this year the cut stands at roughly 30 per cent. It was like a deficient monsoon followed by a drought the very next year. Scientific establishment was also peeved at not having direct access to the Prime Minister. In fact, it is rare that there has been no panel of scientists advising the Prime Minister on policy. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had a scientific advisory committee to the Cabinet. Rajiv Gandhi constituted a scientific advisory committee to the prime minister. Narasimha Rao decided against such committees, as he was upset with two senior scientific leaders who wrote him criticising each other. Vajpayee had a scientific advisory committee to the Cabinet. Manmohan Singh had three scientific advisory committees to the PM and the Cabinet and an innovation council, though the members did not see eye to eye. The scientific advisory committee to the Cabinet still stands on paper, but it has stopped meeting.
A builder building the nation
Why are you here on this earth? What is your purpose? What are you supposed to be doing with your life? These deep questions burn in all of us. Our soul’s desire is to lead fulfilling lives that have meaning.
Khiroda Kumar Jena’s life journey has always been linked to helping other people, though he just never saw it as serving them. As he grew to know himself, he discovered that he has great penchant to serve others. He now lives to serve other, and this brings great fulfilment for him. He believes, “You can achieve almost anything you want if you believe in yourself and you put your heart and mind to it. This level of self-belief allows you to know that you will be okay, no matter what happens. Serving people is easy when we know who we are and what we are about. I believe our true purpose in life is to give our lives away to others, and that we receive happiness, fulfillment, and meaning in return.”
In his urge to serve society, he has put his strength behind promoting organic farming. His farm, Basudev farm, is the genesis of his promotion of organic farming. It is here he does farming armed with only organic fertilizers. Through use of organic fertilizers, he ensures the fertility of the soil and produces many things which include mangoes, jackfruits, groundnuts and many other things. He says that being a farmer’s son, it is the least he can do for the society. He further says for profit making he has many other ventures but this organic farming is purely for the society. He emphasises that many people fall ill by eating farm produces, which are grown through synthetic fertilizers, so it is the need of the hour that we turn towards organic fertilizers, which was the traditional way of farming in our country. He also promotes gaupalan and gau raksha as he says that through this only we will be able to save our culture and traditions, which were once so rich but now got corroded. He also believes that we all have special talents that make this world a richer place. Serve people by showing them how beautiful life can be when you live passionately exploring it with your talents. This may be in writing, painting, singing, or any area of life.
When Prime Minister Narendra Modi took over in 2014, he emphasised that India must get ready to rise in sports other than cricket and make India proud. Believing in this Khiroda Kumar Jena has partnered with Futsal Association of India to promote young talents of the country. He says that this Association aims to educate the youth of India about the importance of Futsal through district, state and national tournaments so that they have a better understanding of the game. It will produce great players not only in Futsal but also in football and create a new benchmark every time. By delivering the best opportunities to country’s young talents along with excellent training and facilities, they hope to create a new talent base in the country, which eventually will win accolades for the country. They have already tied up with more than 300 schools and colleges all over India and plan to grow into every territory, leaving a mark everywhere.
Realising the vision of Prime Minister Narendra Modi of Digital India and Make in India, Khiroda Kumar Jena has also developed an app named Howdydo!, which is a social events and messaging app.It is a made in India app. Unlike Whatsapp, which provides for only 254 people in a group, this app can cater to 1 lakh people directly. This app is very useful for everybody in a sense that it is privacy leak-proof. One will not be able to see the other members’ details and will have to go through administrator to get the details of other members. It is also good for people who are wary of depleting memory spaces in their phones due to unnecessary messages, as the messages sent through this app will directly be saved onto cloud services. It will be very beneficial for government agencies as they can directly take their programmes to such a huge population in one go. This works in two modes–one for individual messaging and other for group activities.
Aged 45 years Khiroda Kumar Jena is an Engineering Graduate in Civil. He has more than 20 years experience in construction industry. Earlier, he was an engineer in Agarson Construction, a leading construction company of Chennai, executing the Public Sector & Institutional Projects in and around Chennai. So far, he has completed more than 50 projects. In the year 1994, he started his own business in the line of construction in the name of M/S. K2 Engineers, a proprietorship firm, and subsequently promoted a private limited company in the name of K2 ENGINEERS PVT. LTD. Through this venture he not only provides quality homes to the people of Chennai but also creates employment opportunities for the people out there.
Achche din for India’s Space Industry
Three years of Prime Minister Narendra Modi has seen some ‘ache din’ (good days) and a ‘naya savera’ (new dawn) for the Indian space agency. Since Modi took over, India’s spaceship reached planet Mars, the successful launch of India’s mini space shuttle India was spectacular, ISRO kickstarted the classic swadeshi satellite based navigation system.
India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-F09) successfully launched the 2230 kg South |Asia Satellite (GSAT-9) into its planned Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) on May 05, 2017. This launch of GSLV was its eleventh and took place from the Second Launch Pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (SDSC SHAR), Sriharikota, the spaceport of India. This is the fourth consecutive success achieved by GSLV carrying indigenously developed Cryogenic Upper Stage. In its oval shaped GTO, the South Asia Satellite is now orbiting the Earth with a perigee (nearest point to Earth) of 169 km and an apogee (farthest point to Earth) of 36,105 km with an orbital inclination of 20.65 deg with respect to the equator. This satellite was actually conceived by Modi himself. The launch of India’s first space observatory AstroSAT that gives India’s scientists a unique view of the universe also fructified successfully. Most importantly, Modi pushed for use of space-based technologies in day-to-day governance of India where he sat through two hours of open grilling of line ministry secretary level bureaucrats on how they plan to use space assets.
Three years of the NDA government has seen classic turn around for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). During the Manmohan SIngh government, the ‘squeaky clean’ space agency was scorched by the worst scandal of this century dubbed the Devas-Antrix S-band spectrum scandal where a total of upwards of Rs two lakh crore was allegedly swindled through crony dealings. The morale at the space agency hit rock bottom but it did not lose focus.
On 26, May 2014 when Modi took over, little did people know that the former ‘chaiwallah’ was an ardent space buff. Modi vibes well with the chairman of ISRO Kiran Kumar with whom he has interacted since his days in Ahmedabad when Modi was chief minister of Gujarat and Kumar was head of the Space Applications Centre there. Kumar has spent close to four decades working in Gujarat and manages to speak a smattering of Gujarati as well. The good chemistry has helped ISRO.
In the last three years under special instruction from Modi, the Indian space agency made a very special dash to complete India’s NAVIC – “Navigation with Indian Constellation” when the last of the seven satellites was successfully placed in the orbit by the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle on April 28.
During Modi’s tenure in rapid succession, all the seven of the seven satellites of NAVIC were put in orbit. The Indian satellite constellation is already providing day and night coverage of the navigation signal throughout the Indian region. This is a unique achievement by ISRO.
The story of Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) is amazing journey — from 1981 when they were struggling to transport a satellite in bullock cart to creating world record now by launching 104 satellites. The launch of more than 100 nanosatellites on a single rocket shows Isro’s domination in space. Launch of 104 satellites in February this year from Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota has been watched by the world over with a gleam of appreciation.
Bahubali: The Beginning
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) scripted history recently as it successfully launched its heaviest rocket GSLV MkIII-D1 carrying communication satellite GSAT-19. The 43.43 metre tall rocket lifted off at 5.28 pm from the second launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre here and launched the 3,136 kg GSAT-19, the heaviest satellite to be launched from the country yet, into orbit about 16 minutes later.
A jubilant ISRO Chairman A S Kiran Kumar said it “is a historic day” and the the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III (MkIII D-1) has successfully demonstrated its capabilities with the injection of GSAT-19 into the desired orbit. “It is a great success in the first maiden attempt and GSLV MkIII has successfully put in orbit GSAT-19 which is a next generation satellite,” Kumar said.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi hailed the successful launch, saying it took India closer to next generation satellite capability. GSAT-19, which will augment India’s communication resources, was released into the intended Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). This GSLV mission is significant for India as ISRO had been depending on foreign launchers for orbiting communication satellites weighing more than 2,300 kgs. The GSLV MkIII-D1 is capable of lifting payloads or satellites weighing upto 4,000 kgs into the GTO and 10,000kgs into the Low Earth Orbit. It was a textbook launch as every stage of the three-stage GSLV MkIII with indegeneous cryogenic engine performed well.
The complex and complicated Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark 3 D1 (GSLV-Mark III), which was nicknamed the “fat boy” by Indian space scientists and “Bahubali” by the Telugu media is the heaviest ever rocket made by India till date.
Not only that, the space scientists successfully deployed GSAT-19, a next generation communication satellite weighing 3,136 kg, the heaviest ever communication satellite fabricated in India, into the Geo Stationary Orbit, 36,000 km away from the earth. The D1 in the GSLV-Mark 3 stands for the first developmental flight.
This means that India is not dependant on any other space agencies like the ESA (European Space Agency) to launch its heavy communication satellites. Till now, ISRO had to carry the heavy communication satellites built by it to the ESA’s launch pad at French Guyana paying exorbitant amount as fee for each launch.
According to Kiran Kumar, chairman, ISRO, the country can launch heavy duty communication satellites from SDSC, India’s space port at Sriharikota on its own without any outside help. The GSLV-Mark 3 launch vehicle deployed by India was powered by an indigenously developed cryogenic engine, one of the most complicated technologies in the world which uses liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen to power the rockets.
It may be remembered that other space powers had tried their best to sabotage and subvert India’s efforts to develop the indigenous cryogenic engine. The ISRO spy case of 1995, which cost the careers of two eminent space scientists, Narayanan and Sasi Kumar, was the handiwork of persons who were under the payroll of various foreign agencies.
The successful launching of the GSLV-Mark 3 vehicle has proved to the global space community that India is capable of launching heavy communication satellites at much reduced rates which literally means that access to space for all has become a reality. India can also plan its future inter-planetary missions like Chandrayaan-2 or Mangalayaan 2, missions to moon and mars respectively, and it is time to seriously think of manned mission to space, the only segment in space science in which China has an advantage over India.
The advancement of digital technology and global internet access has made India sit up, take notice and even start embracing the change. The need to make every Indian citizen realise the power of the internet recently received a major fillip as the national government, led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, initiated a flagship program called “Digital India,” an honest attempt to integrate government departments and the India people. Digital India strives to ensure that government services are available to all citizens electronically by establishing a strong electronic connection between the people of India and the government as it strives to become more transparent, participative and responsive.
Modi often quotes a simple formula: “IT + IT = IT (India’s Talent + Information Technology = India of Tomorrow). As simple and straightforward as Modi’s formula may be, the audaciousness of Digital India is very big. Its scope is huge — to bring internet access to 800 million rural citizens as a way to serve them better, drive internet usage and kick the economy upward.
Digital India plans to bring about a transformation of the nation into a digitally empowered society and knowledge-based economy, using the power of IT. The aim is to reduce paperwork by building a smooth digital interface for all e-governance services, consisting of education, banking, health care and more, that can be provided to Indians on demand.
The three main areas of focus under the Digital India campaign are:
- Creation of a digital infrastructure as an important utility for every citizen
- Provision of governance and services digitally
- Increased digital literacy and empowerment of citizens
It’s estimated that Digital India will increase the country’s GDP between 20 and 30 per cent by 2025. The widespread integration of technology into key economic sectors — infrastructure, energy, financial, agriculture, health care, and education — will provide a positive impact of $550 billion to $1 trillion (U.S.) to the Indian economy annually by 2025!
Digital India is monitored by the Digital India Advisory Group and is scheduled to be completed by 2019, arguably a very short time to achieve its objectives.
Challenges for Digital India and the Role of IT
Ironically, India is already the IT hub of the world: Indian companies and workers have solved some of the biggest IT problems in history. Still, Digital India is a monumental undertaking for the Modi administration, made more so by our demographic challenges. The population explosion and illiteracy are just two of the major obstacles. Four billion people in the world lack internet access, and 25 per cent of them live in rural areas of India. About 37 per cent of adult Indians (287 million) are illiterate, and 33 per cent of our population is younger than 15 years, including 50 per cent who are younger than 24 years.
India is also extremely culturally diverse — we have 22 officially recognized languages! Helping all these people develop electronic literacy is going to take some serious effort. IT of course will play a significant role in reaching out to every Indian via mobile phones and the smart apps designed for them.
Mobile access to the internet is actually a positive aspect of the challenge. More Indians, especially those older than 50, are using internet-connected phones to stay in touch with friends and family.
Digital India also faces significant challenges in ensuring online security as more people take to the internet to request e-governance services. The shift toward mobile governance relies on the able shoulders of India’s IT companies to protect our data.
Because Indians will only start to learn about the internet as they get access to it. One of the most important challenges facing Digital India is to establish high-speed internet networks throughout the country, especially in rural areas where little to no IT infrastructure exists. To achieve this broadband coverage alone, it is estimated that more than 150,000 towers will need to be constructed. (The challenges of right-of-way issues will be significant.) A positive aspect of the buildout is that it will be a significant boost to the economy, as hardware manufacturers and telecom and IT service firms get involved.
Cost is another significant hurdle — Digital India is estimated to cost approximately Rs. 113,000 crore (equivalent to 1,130 billion rupees). On top of these challenges is the ticking of the clock — Digital India has just two years left to prove its worth.
An Encouraging Start for Digital India
Clearly it will require a Herculean national effort to make Digital India work. Fortunately, India and Indians are capable of great things. (We are, after all, the people who caused “Alexander the Great” to rethink his world-conquering tendencies.) And the movement is gaining momentum day by day.
Modi has boosted the confidence of Indians by committing to an investment of approximately Rs. 450, 000 crore for this campaign. As per the top Indian CEOs, “The investments will be used to make mobile devices, including smartphones, at cheap prices in India itself.” This will ensure jobs are generated for Indians and help reduce the costs incurred on importing such mobile devices from foreign countries.
Modi also stressed the need to move from e-governance towards m-governance and added “m-governance does not mean Modi governance. It means mobile governance.”
Seeing the financial potential of Digital India, private entities are lining up in support. Mukesh Ambani, Chairman of Reliance Industries, India’s second-largest company by revenue, recently revealed plans to invest Rs. 250,000 crore for different aspects of the initiative. He even launched “Jio Digital India Start-Up Fund” which aims to motivate young entrepreneurs for starting businesses revolving around this campaign.
An official online portal for Digital India has been made available. This serves as a perfect platform to educate Indians about the initiative, receive valuable inputs and ideas from them, share the roadmap towards digital empowerment and complete similar activities.
Still, even the best government program is destined to fail without the support of the people. Along this line, perhaps most promising sign of all is that Indian IT professionals have helped building several Digital India apps and products that can be used on mobile devices. These include:
MyGov mobile app
This app empowers citizens to participate in government policy making processes with their unique ideas or suggestions.
Swachh Bharat Mission app
This app has been developed to assist citizens and government organizations for any issues or challenges faced while executing tasks for the Swachh Bharat campaign.
Digital Locker app
This is a great product to enable citizens to store and share important documents, like passports, pan cards and educational certificates, online across agencies.
This helps in the quick issuance process for birth certificates, marriage certificates and domicile certificates along with the quick registration for driving licenses, mobile SIM cards, LPG connections, and so on.
Indians can register online and make use of the online appointment booking services, pay fees, keep track of their diagnostic reports and even check the availability of blood.
Citizens can use this online product to digitally sign documents. It can also be used to verify and authenticate signatures.
National Scholarship Portal app
This enables authorized online tracking and disbursement of scholarships to the bank accounts of deserving students.
Private organizations like the Centre for Flexible Electronics and the Centre of Excellence for IoT (Internet of Things) have also been initiated to promote innovation and technological advancement. BharatNet serves as the world’s largest broadband connectivity project in rural areas, using optical fiber for establishing connections across 2.5 lac Village Gram Panchayats. In order to fulfil the goal of providing broadband internet access on the move, BSNL has already launched 78 Wi-Fi hotspots in around six Indian cities with plans to launch 2,500 Wi-Fi hotspots next year.
A Digitize India platform was recently launched to motivate citizens through monetary rewards if they help government agencies digitally transform by reducing the piles of physical documents in their offices. Several proactive Indians have already started participating in the process of digitization of scanned document images or physical documents of organizations via this platform. With these developments, India is expected to become the world leader in IT interface with e-Governance and e-services getting maximum exposure. Driven by such digital engagement, Indian firms are expected to leave the best-in-the-world companies behind, with their IT expertise permeating into services like health, education and banking.
Therefore, it can be concluded that ‘Digital India’ is all set to transform the interface of the country’s socio-economic dynamics. It is deemed to bring systems and infrastructure up to speed and leverage the country’s workforce, establishing a firm foundation towards sustainable practices and eventually progress.
By Nilabh Krishna
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