Subhas Got Us Independence
What political philosophy Subhas desired or would have pursued is a matter of conjecture. The moot question that the IB documents pose is as to why the family of Subhas was kept under surveillance for two decades after independence, and most deploringly, why the surveillance report was being shared with the British intelligence agency, the MI-5. What common interest did the MI-5 and Nehru have?
Since some papers of the Intelligence Bureau on Subhas Chandra Bose and his family have come into the public domain, there has been a concerted campaign by a section of the media to vilify the national hero. An article in prominent English news daily went to the extent of declaring that Subhas was of the strong opinion that post-independence India should be under a dictatorial rule for 20 years. In a way, the article sought to justify the incarceration and subsequent killing of Subhas. The pro-British, pro-Nehru and anti-Subhas constituency still exists. From the tenor of this anti-Subhas lobby it can be extrapolated that how vicious must have been the British and Congress intrigues against Subhas during World Warâ€”II and subsequent to his disappearance, considering the fact that it was only Subhas who was fighting for overthrow of the British, all the top Congress leaders were in jail during that period.
What political philosophy Subhas desired or would have pursued is a matter of conjecture. The moot question that the IB documents pose is as to why the family of Subhas was kept under surveillance for two decades after independence, and most deploringly, why was the surveillance report being shared with the British intelligence agency, the MI-5. What common interest did the MI-5 and Nehru have? If Nehru did know about the real truth about Subhas, i.e. about his incarceration or murder, how did he live with the murderous guilt?
The sharing of intelligence with a foreign intelligence agency, rather former colonial master on a revered freedom fighter, who was also the Congress President at one time, lends some credence to the insinuations about certain leaders in the Congress of pre-independence era having links with MI-5, primarily to marginalise the extremists. The hatred for Subhas in the Gandhi-Nehru camp is a historical fact. This hostility compelled Subhas to resign as Congress President in 1939, despite being democratically elected. Hence the question as to who were fascists and who were liberal democrats in the pre-independence Congress will always remain.
Subhasâ€™s resignation as Congress President nearly coincided with the outbreak of World War-II. In fact, during that period the war clouds in Europe were already hovering. Was his resignation, therefore, engineered by external agencies? No sooner after the outbreak of WW-II, the Congress ministries in the eight provinces resigned in 1939. Jinnah described this as â€˜day of deliveranceâ€™. Thus the onset of the WW-II, made the gulf between Congress and Muslim League unbridgeable. In the same year, in the Wardha session, the Congress Working Committee supported the fight against fascism, but did not countenance India joining the war effort. Gandhi did not support Britain as he was not reconciled to war, but later supported the same on the plea that he did not seek to raise a â€˜free India from ashes of Britainâ€™. Apparently, the Congress leaders decried the employment of Indian soldiers in the war without their consent and guarantee of Independence, but did nothing to deter the British. This was despite the fact that between 1940 and 1943 Bengal faced one of the worst famines in Indian history. Indians starved while tons of Indian food was being supplied to sustain British forces. A public sentiment against the Congress leaders was turning hostile. Belatedly, and guided purely for imperatives of political relevance, on 8th August 1942, Gandhi launched â€˜Quit India Movementâ€™. Immediately the entire top leadership of Congress was taken into custody. Leaderless and rudderless the movement died in a yearsâ€™ time, but the Congress leaders remained in prison till the rest of the war. This served the interest of the British and as well as the reputation, prestige and political prestige of Congress leaders. Some Congress leaders like Jaiprakash Narain who genuinely fought the British during the movement never made a political career post -Independence. What was the sacrifice of the top Congress leaders therefore?
The â€˜Quit India Movementâ€™ failed to galvanise India to efficacious magnitude and intensity. Those arrayed against it included Viceroyâ€™s Council (majority Indians), Jinnah (Muslim League), Communist Party of India (supported when Russia entered war), and Princely States. There were many Congress leaders too who had advised against the movement. How could Jinnahâ€™s support to the British gone unrewarded! He ultimately did get his reward in form of Pakistan!
It was during this period, when the Congress leaders were ineffective that Subhas Chandra Bose was exerting himself for Indiaâ€™s independence. He first escaped to Germany then to Japan and subsequently raised the Indian National Army (INA) and setup a provisional government of Free India in Singapore in July 1943. In October same year, he flew to Tokyo to participate in the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere meet.
The Congress Party and some Indian commentators maintain that Subhas sided with the wrong side, i.e. the Axis powers, who were fascists. Well, all that Subhas did was to exploit the vulnerability of the British for gaining Indiaâ€™s independence. It was a perfectly nationalist and moral move. The British all through their rule had missed no opportunity in mutilating Indiaâ€™s history and creating religious fissures in Indian society. Two instances in this regard are glairing: The most diabolical attack on Indiaâ€™s cultural unity was by Lord Minto, who in 1906 encouraged the Aga Khan to submit a proposal for â€˜separate electorateâ€™ for Muslims. Durga Das in his book India from Curzon to Nehru and After on page 50 writes, â€œOn him (Aga Khan) had been conferred the status of â€˜leader of the Muslims in Indiaâ€™â€. Durga Das does not fail to point out that on independence Aga Khan forswore Indian citizenship even as 50 million of his co-religionists remained in the country after Pakistan had been created. Minto in accepting Aga Khanâ€™s demands with alacrity, tried to drive a wedge in Hindi-Muslim unity by describing the Muslims of India as â€˜the descendants of conquering and ruling raceâ€™. Durga Das reminds that â€˜majority of Indian Muslims are converts from Hinduism and not descendants from Turks, Persians, Pathans or Mughalsâ€™.
The conspiracy by Lord Minto is best described by Arun Shourie in his book Missionaries of India on page 196. He quotes an article by Lady Minto on Aga Khanâ€™s demand for separate electorate, wherein she wrote: â€œThis has been a very eventful day; as someone said to me, â€˜an epoch in Indian Historyâ€™. â€¦ A very big thing has happened today, a work of statesmanship that will affect India and Indian history for many a long year. It is nothing less than the pulling back of 62 millions of people from joining the ranks of the seditious opposition.â€
Another attack on Indiaâ€™s cultural unity was through the vector of â€˜censusâ€™. Again, Arun Shourie quotes M.Macauliffeâ€™s lecture on the â€˜Sikh Religion and its Advantages to the Stateâ€™ in 1903: â€œAt former (census) enumerations village Sikhs in their ignorance generally recorded themselves as Hindus, as indeed they virtually were. With the experience gained by time, a sharp line of demarcation has now been drawn between Sikhs and Hindusâ€¦â€. He further states that apart from census demarcations, ceremonies to instill and widen feelings of separateness amongst Sikhs in the Army were deliberately introduced.
Post-Independence too and till date, the British have harboured many Indian secessionistsâ€™ leaders and organisations on their soil. So what was wrong in Subhas Chandra Bose exploiting the then prevailing vulnerability of the British. Moreover, how was the Congress Party entitled to decide which of the two, i.e. Allied or Axis powers were a moral and righteous force to be sided with. Indians at that time were slaves of the British, and leaders of slaves if not in collusion with masters, should only be guided by the â€˜objective of liberationâ€™. Subhas was purely guided by this objective.
Indiaâ€™s most revered historian RC Mazumdar has written about the views ascribed to Clement Attlee on compulsions of the British for grant of Independence. As per the former British prime minister, apart from many reasons, the decision to grant independence to India was majorly influenced by the impact of Subhas Chandra Bose and his INA. The INA in fact had wrecked the precise instrument of the British rule, the armed forces. Its reverberations manifested in the naval mutiny in 1946 in which 20,000 sailors, 78 ships and 20 shore establishments were involved. There were also mutinies in an Army unit at Jabalpur and Air Force base at Karachi. During the period, when the Congress leaders were in jail during WW-II, 26,000 INA men sacrificed their lives for liberation of India. It constitutes nearly half of INA.
Moreover nearly 2.5 million Indian soldiers had been demobilised after WW-II. This huge force too was restive, and inspired by Subhas, the INA and its nationalism. It became impossible for the British to hold India. It was also impossible for Nehru to rule India with Subhas around. It was impossible for the British to create Pakistan with Subhas at the helm.
Against the backdrop of the fresh revelations, it is time to reflect whether the Gandhian method delivered or Subhas got us independence, whether the lawyerâ€™s approach (most Congress leaders were Bar-at-Law) or Netajiâ€™s jolt made the British leave. Post-independence the same Congress used force to liberate Goa from another colonial power, Portugal. The lawyers approach probably did not succeed because there was no MI-5 to collude with. The Congress Party, which has ruled this country for most years, will obviously be nervous about any revelation of the fate of Subhas and his crucial role in securing Indiaâ€™s independence.
By RSN Singh