Wednesday, August 10th, 2022 20:31:26

Martyr With A Cause

Updated: April 28, 2012 11:11 am

As khatas (Tibetan ceremonial scarves) were deposited on Jamphel Yeshi’s coffin near the Central Cathedral in Dharamsala with the Tibetan national anthem resounding in the hill town over the Kangra Valley, two Tibetan monks set themselves on fire in Barkham (Ngaba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province).

During the last few months, it has been a regular and tragic practice which has shaken a Chinese leadership in transition, itself caught up in a rarely-so-opened power struggle at the helm.

A further radicalisation

Like Jamphel Yeshi, they have become pawo (martyr). The 26-year Tibetan youngster who immolated himself in Delhi during a demonstration against President Hu Jintao’s presence at the BRICS Summit, was given ‘national’ funerals in Dharamsala, the seat of the Central Tibetan Administration of the Dalai Lama.

The picture of the young native of Tawu from Kham Province of Eastern Tibet splashed on the front pages of hundreds of publication around the world. After Yeshi had set himself aflame, he ran several meters in front of journalists and policemen in Jantar Mantar. With 98 per cent burn injuries, his body survived for a day, raising hope for a time amongst his supporters; unfortunately, he passed away a day later.

Jamphel Yeshi had escaped to India in 2006 and like most newly-arrived refugees, he learned English at the Tibetan Transit School near Dharamsala. After three and a half years, he left the Himalayan resort to settle in Delhi where he often participated in activities linked to the Tibetan struggle.

His immolation follows 32 others in Tibet since March 2011.

Beijing has probably not realised as yet, but the Tibetan movement has taken a U-turn. For decades, it was the Dalai Lama or his Cabinet Ministers who were the main speakers on this open square, located between the Cathedral and Tibetan leader’s ‘palace’ in Dharamsala.

For Yeshi’s funeral, the Tibetan Youth Congress, the radical exiled group which had spearheaded the demonstration against President Hu in Delhi during which Yeshi committed his horrendous action was the master of ceremony.

 “THE SOLE DEMAND OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE IS FREEDOM INSIDE TIBET”—Tenzin Norbu, Coordinator, India Tibet Coordination Office

All hell breaks loose. Sufferings seem to be seeing no end despite the fact that many Tibetans lost their lives, hundreds of protests against China seem futile cutting no ice across the borderline. The road fraught with angst and anger, torment and torture is leading nowhere. Unwept tears and muffled cries are still awaiting a new morning that may promise a bright tomorrow.

In full public view at Delhi’s Jantar Mantar during a demonstration to protest against the Chinese President Hu Jintao visiting India to participate in BRICS summit, Jamphel Yeshi a 26-year-old Tibetan self-immolated. Tibetans have been going on a march and venting their spleen on Chinese oppression in Tibet. Yeshi is yet another sacrifice in the hope of liberating the little province from the clutches of cruelty and atrocity. He left behind those fond memories wrapped in the fold of one room tenement in Majnu Ka Tila. Tibetan Refugee Colony appears to be a mini Lhasa that lies in the northern suburbs of Delhi.

The quiet, reserved and only Tibet-concerned Yeshi had thukpa and noodle broth before going to bed around 10, the night before the eventful protest, got up at 7 folded his bedding, went to the gompa (temple) and left for Jantar Mantar on a bus arranged by Tibetan Youth Congress. He knew pretty well of his premeditated move that he would not return, left a note that urges the community to go on fighting for Tibet.

This act evidently tried to nudge attention to the Chinese brutality in Tibet at a time when great leaders of different countries and much of the media have ignored the wave of unrest in this territory. He was terribly worried about his mother and brothers in Tawu, his hometown. His mother sent him to India in 2006 so that he could live a life of freedom.

Tenzin Norbu reveals in talks with Uday India.

Tibetans are being treated shabbily by the Chinese as what the reports say. How can the issue be resolved?

The crux of the problem lies in the discriminative and unjust policies of the Communist China towards Tibet. Since 1959, after the forceful Chinese occupation of Tibet, Chinese government has rigorously implemented such policies, which aimed to annihilate Tibetan race and identity. With the large influx of Chinese settlers, Tibetans are becoming minority in their own homeland. Fundamental human rights, which include religious freedom, are severely deprived inside Tibet. Environmental destruction inside Tibet is also a great cause of concerns. Therefore, with such repressive policies, Tibetans show many grievances. But instead of solving the problems, China responded with harsher policies that creates resentments among Tibetans against the Chinese government.

If the Chinese government treated Tibetans with equality, justice and dignity, by respecting the aged old Tibetan cultures and its fragile ecology, the Tibet issues can be resolved in the future. Exile Tibetan Administration calls for the Middle Way Policy in negotiating with the Chinese Government for the future status of Tibet.

Yeshi immolated himself and there are many Yashis who suffer in silence and may give life as it seems apparent. How can these flames be brought down?

There is a presence of deep resentment against the current Chinese policies on Tibet. Tibetans inside Tibet had tried to engage in various conventional protests against the Chinese regime, but Tibetans were killed, tortured, and imprisoned for many years. So, this new form of protest by burning oneself is the desperate act of calling for freedom and the return of His Holiness the Dalai Lama in Tibet. The fire that burns in Tibet can only be controlled by fulfilling the demands of all the Tibetans who longs for freedom. Otherwise, the retaliatory policies of China will fuel more fire of resentment amongst the Tibetans against the Chinese Regime.

Could you please elaborate on your demands, as may be the bone of contention?

Tibet was historically an independent nation with a long history of civilization. For centuries, Tibet and China have been neighbours like India. In 1950s, after China’s occupation and invasion of Tibet, more than 6,000 monasteries were destroyed and 1.2 million Tibetans died as a direct result. Since then, China has introduced discriminative and unjust policies that aim to annihilate Tibetan culture and identity. For more than 5 decades, Tibetans have been deprived of basic human rights and China transformed Tibet into militarised zone.

The sole demand of the Tibetan people is Freedom inside Tibet. Therefore, almost all of those who immolated called in unison for the freedom of Tibet.

How do you look at the scenario so far as India is concernedi?

Tibet has cultural amiability with India throughout the history. India had an influential role in Tibetan language, Buddhism, Astrology, Medicine and other aspects. With such a contribution, Tibetans consider India as our Guru for thousands of years. In 1950s, when PRC forcibly occupied Tibet, India was not able to help Tibet much as the wishes of Tibetans. But Tibetans feel gratitude to the Indian government and public for accommodating thousands of Tibetans in India.

Tibet was a buffer state for centuries, but that buffer nation disappears after Tibet was invaded by China. For the last fifty years, India faces directly with China and China claims several part of Indian territories, which remained disputed ever since. The massive environmental destruction inside Tibet has its direct repercussion in adjacent countries. In a nutshell, India’s sustainability, security and survival is at stake. So, it is worth to mention that Indian should help Tibet not because of just mere sympathy, but India must stand to restore Tibet’s freedom for their own long term sustainability, security and survival. India has both moral and practical reasons to help Tibet.

What was your standpoint taking Chinese President Hu Jintao’s visit to India?

Last month, Hu Jintao visited New Delhi for BRICS summit and it is as usual that whenever Chinese leaders visited India and any other free world, Tibetans greeted them with protests. This time, a young Tibetan, Jamphel Yeshi welcomed Chinese President Hu Jintao with a fierce fire, sacrificing his life to launch his protest against the Chinese policies in Tibet. Unless the Chinese resolve the Tibet issues, Tibetans both inside and outside Tibet will fight for freedom and justice. Tibetans freedom struggle is based on truth and ultimately truth will prevail.

 By Syed Wazid Ali

Dhondup Lhadar, the Youth Congress vice-president emotionally spoke of the last days of the young martyr. He explained that Jamphel Yeshi had dropped some hints that he was planning something ‘special’. He had spoken to a friend about the happenings in Tibet and told that his brother he had transferred his money to the former’s bank account, while giving him a suitcase full of his clothes. He justified this by explaining: “I’d like to join the protest organized by the Tibetan Youth Congress, and maybe I won’t be coming back.”

Why these immolations?

One could give hundreds of examples showing the frustration and resentment of the Tibetan populations against the Chinese police apparatus. Take the police poster pasted everywhere in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (formerly in Amdo province of northeastern Tibet); it speaks for itself.


The poster says: “The Public Security Bureau (PSB) requests the public to give information about criminals who threaten the social stability of Gannan”.


It threatens: “the following actions will be met with violent beating/torture by the PSB”. A list of reprehensive actions is given. For example: 1. Disturbance of relations between ethnic groups, public agitation between ethnic groups, the destruction of national unity or


  1. The corruption of the public with ideas of the splitting of the nation, through speech and the distribution of written information, cartoons, home-made materials, videos, etc all acts destructive to social discipline and stability.

Adding: “Those who give the police information about the perpetrators will be guaranteed personal protection by PSB officers, personal confidentiality”; they will receive a reward of 5,000 yuans.

This gives an idea of the atmosphere on the Tibetan plateau.


The Testament: Don’t be disheartened. It is only after Jamphel Yeshi’s death that his ‘testament’ was found. What is most surprising when one sees Yeshi’s note is how neatly it has been written (in Tibetan). One is struck by the orderly, regular and smoothly-shaped scripts. How can someone going to sacrifice his own life be so calm and composed? Further, his arguments are deeply thought of.


Yeshi first pays homage to the Dalai Lama: “Long Live His Holiness the Dalai Lama, who is the shining example of world peace. We must strive to ensure the return of His Holiness to Tibet. I pray and believe that the Tibetan people in and outside Tibet will be united and sing the Tibetan national anthem in front of the Potala Palace.”


Then he addresses his ‘fellow Tibetans’: “when we think about our future happiness and path, we need loyalty. It is the life-soul of a people. It is the spirit to find the truth. It is the guide leading to happiness. My fellow Tibetans, if you want equality and happiness as the rest of the world, you must hold onto this word ‘LOYALTY’ towards your country. Loyalty is the wisdom to know the truth from falsehood. You must work hard in all your endeavours, big or small.”


Yeshi exhorts them to remain united: “My fellow Tibetans from Three Provinces, it is clear to us all that if we unitedly put our strength together, there will be results. So, don’t be disheartened”.


He then speaks about this special moment in the history of his nation: “At a time when we are making our final move toward our goal if you have money, it is the time to spend it; if you are educated it is the time to produce results; if you have control over your life, I think the day has come to sacrifice your life. The fact that Tibetan people are setting themselves on fire in this 21st century is to let the world know about their suffering, and to tell the world about the denial of basic human rights. If you have any empathy, stand up for the Tibetan people.”


His demands are simple: “freedom to practice our religion and culture, freedom to use our language; the same right as other people living elsewhere in the world.”

There is no doubt that we are witnessing a turning point in the Tibetan movement. Till last year, the Dalai Lama was involved in the daily political decisions. He has since then ‘retired’ and does not actively participate in the political lives of the exiles, though the funeral of Yeshi was held less than a furlong away from the Tibetan leader’s residence, he did not participate.

The Chinese leadership starts regretting that serious negotiations were not held with the Tibetan leaders when he was at the helm; since the immolation movement begun the Tibetan struggle has taken a much more radical turn. Who remembers the Middle Path today?

And it gets a lot of coverage; the Chinese did not probably expect this new visibility.

They are courageous or desperate?

A Tibetan, who has occupied important positions in Dharamsala and lived the last 53 years in exile, wrote to me after Yeshi’s funerals:”I have just come from the funeral ceremony of Jamphel Yeshi. It was moving and charged with emotion. I have never felt like this before. As some of the speakers said, it was both a sad and a proud occasion. I am amazed at the courage and determination of these young Tibetans who sacrificed their lives for Tibet. I neither have the courage nor the determination. These brave acts are extremely inspiring. I have always felt so, even of those who have been imprisoned and tortured – and in some ways it was probably more difficult. These desperate acts clearly show that the Tibetan spirit is still strong. But the frightening fact is that we are up against such a formidable foe, who everyone, including the most powerful nation on earth, is scared of.”

This resumes quite well the present situation. Since the beginning of the Dragon Year, the regime in Beijing has never been so febrile, the wave of diverse wild rumors emanating from Beijing is the best sign of this.

Can the Tibetan David make the Communist Goliath wobble further?

There are indeed reasons for Beijing to be anxious.

If one looks at the profiles of those who did the supreme sacrifice in Tibet, one discovers how young some of these monks or nuns were, for example, Tenzin Choeden, who immolated herself on February 11, was a young 18-year old nun of Ngaba.

These new ‘protestors’ have not witnessed the Tibetan uprising of 1959, the Martial Law in Tibet in 1988/89, the Tiananmen Square events a few months later or the riots of the early 1990’s.

It means that the regime in Beijing has utterly failed to extinguish the Tibetan fire for freedom.

During the funerals of the new pawo, Penpa Tsering, the Speaker the Tibetan Assembly asked: “Now the question is how many more Tibetan lives will be lost before the Tibetan issue is resolved?”

We will probably witness many more self-immolations; there is no doubt that it gives the younger generation a chance to dream of a better world. In a sense, this movement marks the failure of the Dalai Lama’s Middle Path policy and Beijing’s rejection of the Tibetan leader moderate demands.

One can only hope that a more reasonable leadership will emerge during the 18th CCP Congress later this year in Beijing who will see the advantages of a fair negotiated settlement.

By Claude Arpi







By Tej Pratap Singh

Over the years, Indian foreign and defence policies, from being Pak-centric have become Sino-centric. Tibet occupies the central position in Sino-India relation. In fact, it will not be an exaggeration to say that Sino-Indian relation has been taken hostage by the Tibet imbroglio. Without resolving the Tibet issue, Sino-Indian ties cannot be stabilised. Therefore, resolution of Tibet issue to the satisfaction of Tibetan people, China and India is the pre-condition for better Sino-Indian relation.

Sino-Indian relation has been bedeviled by the border dispute between the two Asian giants and Tibet is the core issue of Sino-Indian border dispute. In fact, till the occupation and annexation of Tibet by China in 1950-51, India had no common border with China. Britain in its great geopolitical game with Russia and China has created Tibet as a buffer state for the security of its most prized colonial possession India. Tibet has been enjoying de facto sovereignty since the demise of Manchu dynasty in 1912. Nationalist China tried to control Tibet but its effort was rebuffed by Tibetan people. Tibet pleaded to the international community for its recognition as an independent state but Britain in its Great Game deferred the grant of full fledged sovereignty and accepted the Chinese suzerainty over Tibet. Britain treated Tibet as an autonomous entity which had effective control over the whole of Tibet. Britain recognized the sovereign power of treaty making of the Tibetan government and concluded several treaties and agreements, by which, Britain sought and achieved several special concessions and privileges from Tibetan rulers.

Shimla Conference and its Implications for Sino-Indian Relations

To resolve the Sino-Tibetan dispute, Britain convened tripartite Shimla conference in 1913-14. Tibet was divided into Outer Tibet and Inner Tibet. Outer Tibet, which is Tibet proper, was declared to be autonomous region over which China was to have nominal sovereignty or suzerainty, whereas Inner Tibet which has sizeable Tibetan population was to be under the full sovereign control of China. Shimla conference also approved Indo-Tibetan border, which was named McMahon line after a British official, who played a key role in Shimla conference. China did not ratify the agreements reached the Shimla Conference. Contemporary China is putting forward this argument that since it did not approve the treaties concluded in the Shimla Conference and so it did not recognise the McMahon line. However, at that time China has reservations about the provisions related to Outer and Inner Tibet and not to Sino-Indian border called McMahon line. Non ratification of treaties concluded in Shimla conference also meant that China did not recognise the sovereign right of treaty making of Tibetan government. Peoples Republic of China (PRC) argued that it was an imperial treaty imposed by the colonial British government over the weak China. The special concessions and privileges enjoyed by the British Indian government in Tibet were extra-territorial rights imposed unilaterally by the British Indian government over the weak China. China argued that with the resumption of sovereign rights by PRC in 1950, these special concessions and privileges enjoyed by the Indian government became anachronistic and so has to be withdrawn and abolished, which was promptly done by independent India under Nehru.

Tibet Occupation and Annexation: Serious Security Threat to India

To secure Indian borders, British Viceroy Lord Curzon wanted to have a buffer state between India, China and Russia. With this objective Younghusband mission was dispatched in 2004 to Lhasa to extract favourable concessions, rights and privileges from the Tibetan rulers to protect trading rights, to strengthen the security of Indian borders from any external threat and to forestall any possibility of Tsarist Russia getting any foothold in Tibet. A small garrison having around 200 Indian soldiers was also established in Lhasa to protect Indian strategic interests in Tibet. An Indian representative was also posted in Lhasa to mediate between Tibetan regime and government of India. These Indian troops and representative continued to be stationed in Lhasa till the occupation of Tibet by PRC. India also had postal and telegraph presence in Tibet to facilitate smooth communication between India and Tibet. These communication networks continued to be in operation till Tibet was annexed by the PRC. India later withdrew these rights and all the assets and equipments were given as gift to the people of China as a goodwill gesture by India. Tibet as a buffer between India and China provided the best possible security to India’s northern Himalayan border. China’s occupation of Tibet brought mighty China on the border of India. This created serious security threat to India. Within no time, China began asserting its position vis-à-vis India.

Chinese Quest for Legitimacy in Tibet

To provide legitimacy to its occupation and annexation of Tibet, China from the day one of its entry into Tibet was seeking Indian acceptance of Tibet as an integral part of China. A vast majority of Indian people were opposed to the subjugation of Tibetan people and wished that India must provide moral and materiel support to Tibetan resistance movement. Without active support of India, Tibetans have no chance of humbling China in Tibet. India since time immemorial has had cultural and commercial ties with Tibet. In fact, for the outside world, India acted as the only window on Tibet. Because of the difficult terrain, Tibet was connected to the world through India. Buddhism provided strong bonding between the people of India and Tibet. Despite all this, India was a silent spectator to the annihilation of Tibet as an independent state. India even failed to act in its own strategic interests and surrendered all those special rights and privileges, which British India has acquired over the years in Tibet.

China made Tibet as a test case for Indian opposition to colonialism and imperialism. China pressed India to surrender all the special rights and privileges enjoyed by British India in Tibet in the name of anti-colonialism and anti-imperialism. Nehru was so naïve that to prove his and India’s anti-colonialism and anti-imperialism credentials promptly surrendered all the special rights and privileges without any quid pro quo from China.

Panchsheel and Betrayal of India

Panchsheel (five principles of foreign policy) was incorporated into the preamble of 1954 India China Trade and Intercourse Treaty in the Tibetan Region of China. By this treaty India unambiguously accepted Tibet as integral part of China and surrendered all extraterritorial rights in Tibet. This capitulation of India before China was a kind of national security harakiri by India. Conclusion of this treaty by India with China to accept the full sovereignty of China over Tibet without any precondition was the beginning of the opening of the Pandora box in Sino-Indian border dispute. Even the ink of Panchsheel agreement has not dried that China began intruding in the Indian Territory and Sino-Indian border clashes began, which have continued till this date.

Though Panchasheel was a one-sided agreement, highly in favour of China and loaded against Indian national interests, even then Indian foreign policy establishment led by Prime Minister Nehru hailed it as triumph of Indian diplomacy. Indian diplomats in their wishful thinking presumed that signing of Sino-Indian Treaty over Tibet was the formal acceptance of McMahon line by China. However, China never said so. Indian diplomats were so naïve that they did not think it proper to insist on the inclusion of acceptance of McMahon line by Chinese as a quid pro quo for the Indian acceptance of Chinese sovereignty over Tibet. India has paid and is still paying the very heavy price for the idealism of Pundit Nehru. China changed its tone and tenor after Panchasheel agreement. It began violating Panchsheel immediately after its conclusion, both in letter and spirit and accused India of doing so.

Tibet Revolt of 1959

After the occupation of Tibet by China, Tibetans wanted to raise it in the United Nations. India first assured Tibetan leaders to support the Tibetan resolution in the UN but later not only backed out from its assurance but emerged as the foremost spokesman of China in the UN and opposed the Tibet resolution moved by Al Salvador in the false hope of winning over Chinese friendship. Since global community was seized with the Korean crisis, India was the only hope for Tibetan but unfortunately India was pursuing the policy of Chinese appeasement and so India declined to offer any kind of moral and material support to Tibetan resistance movement. Consequently, Tibetan leaders were forced to reach some kind of rapprochment with the Chinese leadership to retrieve some semblance of autonomy. India’s Tibet policy eminently suited Chinese interests in consolidating their position in Tibet. However, things began changing when India discovered the Chinese encroachment in Aksai-Chin, increasing PLA intrusions in Indian territory and repeated clashes with the Indian soldiers. Tibetan leaders also felt let down by Chinese when they discovered the complete loss of their autonomy in China. In March 1959, Tibetan rose in revolt against their subjugation by the Chinese. However, PLA crushed the rebellion with the use of heavy force and Dalai Lama with his supporters took refuge in India. India promptly granted them an asylum and unlike in the past did not force the Dalai Lama to return to China. Couple of years back, when Dalai Lama had visited India to participate in the commemoration of 2500 years of Buddha’s birth, he wanted to remain in India but government of India prevailed over the Dalai Lama to return to China and seek political accommodation with the Chinese regime.

      China was angered by the Indian behavior and began heaping all kinds of abuse on Nehru and India. Nehru no longer trusted Chinese and Sino-Indian conflict became a global issue. All the talk of Hindi-Chini Bhai-Bhai (Indians and Chinese are brothers) evaporated in the air. Government of India provided all kind of facilities to Tibetan refugees. It is because of Indian people’s support Tibetans have succeeded in preserving their distinct religion and culture. Now Tibetans have their government in exile at Dharamshala in Himanchal Pradesh. China accused India of fomenting trouble in Tibet with the active collaboration of western intelligence agencies from Kalimpong town of West Bengal. China went to the bizarre extent of accusing India of kidnapping Dalai Lama. India rejected all these Chinese allegations and invited Chinese officials to visit India and meet the Tibetan leaders including Dalai Lama and ascertain the truth, why they have fled Tibet and taken refuge in India. Out of frustration, China decided to teach India a lesson and the result was Sino-Indian war of 1962.

Turmoil in Tibet Area and its impact on Sino-Indian Relations

Any upheaval in Tibet has its immediate impact on Sino-Indian ties. China was in this impression that development in Tibetan region and improvement in the living standard of Tibetan people will put an end to the separatist movement in Tibet. But development and better living conditions has not extinguished the Tibetan yearning for independence. Since 2008, Tibetan Diaspora outside and Tibetans in Tibet have been on warpath to regain their lost autonomy if not independence. Beijing Olympic torch relay race was disrupted in many parts of the world by Tibetans to attract global attention to the Tibetan plight. Award of Nobel Prize of Peace to Dalai Lama, symbol of Tibetan resistance to Chinese occupation and annexation galvanized the Tibetan people to intensify their struggle against the Chinese rule. Tibetan monks have resorted to the extreme step of self-immolation. So far more than thirty Tibetan monks and nuns in Tibet have self-immolated to attract global attention towards the Tibetan plight in China. Not only Tibet proper but even Tibetan inhabited areas such as Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu also have reported the cases of self-immolation by Tibetan monks. One Tibetan youth has immolated in New Delhi during the visit of Chinese Premier Hu Jintao to participate in BRICS summit in March 2012. Supreme sacrifices made by these Tibetans have unsettled the Chinese regime. As usual, Chinese authorities are blaming Dalai clique for instigating trouble in Tibet. China is putting pressure on India to curb the activities of Tibetan refugees in India. Government of India on its part has assured Chinese authorities that it will not allow its territory to be misused by Tibetan refugees for anti-China activities. Instead of blaming others, China itself has to undertake several measures to win over the trust of Tibetan people to prevent them from resorting to desperate measure of self immolation.

Way Forward in Tibetan Imbroglio

Now what is the way out? Sinicisation of Tibet has failed to resolve Tibetan issue. Tibetan has preserved their distinct cultural and religious identity with the help of India and global community. Settlement of Han people in Tibetan area has inflamed their passion for independence. Tibetans resent the presence of Han people and Chinese troops in their land. China won over Panchem Lama to its side but failed to undermine the authority of Dalai Lama, who is most revered Tibetan figure. Without involving him no solution to Tibetan question is possible. Here India can play a positive role in persuading Dalai Lama and his followers to accept the resolution of Tibet problem. Over the years, Dalai Lama has also accepted the futility of seeking independence for Tibet. Dalai Lama while addressing the European Parliament in Strasbourg has unveiled his plan for the resolution of Tibetan problem within China. Among other things, it envisages full autonomy within China and demilitarization of Tibetan Autonomous Region. This proposal, which is now called Strasbourg proposal, is closer to Indian demand of granting full autonomy to Tibet. Demilitarization of Tibet will fulfill the Indian security needs of having a buffer state between India and China. Since this proposal accepts the Chinese suzerainty over Tibet and does not talk about splitting China, it can be accepted by China without compromising its sovereignty over Tibet. But China does not want to dilute its position in Tibet and want to integrate it completely with China.

Unless China is not granting full autonomy to Tibet, this problem will continue to haunt it. Chinese aggressive posture of claiming Indian territories in Arunachal Pradesh in eastern sector and Ladakh in western sector will not help it in consolidating its position in Tibet. Repeated incursions in Indian Territory by PLA have annoyed Indian government and people. Without involving India no solution of Tibet imbroglio is possible. Any lasting solution of Tibet must be acceptable to the Indian, Chinese and Tibetan people.

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