Job crisis or social crisis?
All the economies in the world are not performing well due to the Chinese virus and India is also among those most affected countries. The biggest concern at present across the globe is to bring back livelihoods which lost due to the virus. Owing to its large population, India is more concerned about this than other nations. India is the second biggest home of the world population with almost 1.4 billion people. Nearly 50 per cent of the Indian population are below the age of 25 and approximately 65 per cent are below the age of 35.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who came to power in 2014 is being targeted by the opposition over the issue of job crisis. However, the most interesting topic is, can India provide job to everyone? Can any government do so? The answer is yes! India can do this! But for this, India will have to be the centre of the world’s manufacturing and to become the centre of manufacturing, any government needs at least two decades. Even China took three decades to become a manufacturing hub.
According to the census 2011, around 41 per cent of India’s population was below the age of 20 years. It means when Narendra Modi came to power in 2014, then he had already the gigantic task to provide jobs to at least 20 per cent of them. In other words, it could be said that the biggest task before Prime Minister Narendra Modi was to create at least 30 crores of livelihood with help of state governments in few years, which was impossible in reality. However, Modi had realised this challenge and this is the reason why he took the initiative of ‘Make in India’. This was done to tackle this challenge. In India, the job crisis could be overcome only with help of a large-scale of indigenous manufacturing. The new initiative of ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ is an integral part of that.
Recently, in a written reply in the Lok Sabha, Minister for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, Nitin Gadkari said that a total of one crore two lakh 32 thousand 468 MSMEs were registered between 2015 and June 2020. Therefore, it could be said that employment has been generated in India by the Modi government. However, the job demand is so high that this employment generation is not visible. Of course, government job is not a solution in a country like India where half a billion people need jobs. This is the reason why, since the first day Modi government has increased the involvement of the private sector in every business. This is also true that the private sector can generate more jobs than the government does. Even the government spends more money and create less opportunity for the same work. Recently, while speaking in a webinar, Prime Minister Narendra Modi also said that the government has no business to be in business. Here, he emphasised the role of privatisation.
Now coming to the topic, despite so many government initiatives and providing welfare schemes, demand for jobs is growing day by day. And it has a social connection too. Independent behaviour is increasing in the Indian family system due to higher ambition. Owing to this, everyone in the family is seeking jobs and wants to live an independent life. Now, the number of extended family is on the decline, which was the strength of India earlier. It was also economically beneficial. Now, due to partition in the family, members of the family are not dependent on each other. Earlier, if three people in a 12-member family were working, it was an easy survival for the whole family. Now, due to the partition of the family, every member of the family has to work to survive. This is the reason of the unprecedented growth in job-seekers. Population growth is also a reason behind this crisis. However, this job crisis could have been tackled if governments in the past had foreseen this challenge coming. It needed radical reforms, as China did many decades back. The growing consumerism is also one of the reasons why survival becoming costly. People are forced to spend more and saving in banks is decreasing.
This is the same in the case with farmers issue, In India, 60 per cent are small farmers, who own 1-3 acres of land, 19 per cent fall in the category of medium farmers, who own 4-9 acres of land, 7 per cent are large farmers, who own 10 or more acres of land and almost 14 per cent of farmers are only cultivators, who don’t own any land. One of the most important things is that due to the partition of family, the area of farming is shrinking day by day, due to which the production cost is increasing. And agriculture is in crisis.
Having said this, the role of society is very crucial in any economy. Any changes in the family system directly affect the country. And the same is happening with India, which is due to the influence of the west, who have more resources and less population in comparison to India. Fulfilling the aspirations of 1.4 billion people in a $ 3-trillion economy is still a big challenge.
By Ravi Mishra