Education In India Future Aspects Of Skill Developments
The new awakening of humanism and humanisation all over the world has in fact enlarged the scope of applying principles of human resource management in organizations. One of the most significant developments in the field of organisation in recent times is the increasing importance given to human resources. More and more attention is being paid to motivational aspects of human personality, particularly the need for self-esteem, group belonging and self-actualisation. The education and skill development services sector broadly comprises of school education, higher education including technical education, industrial /technical training and vocational training.
Various aspects of education, right from primary to higher education, falls under the ambit of the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Vocational training, largely offered through Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and Industrial Training Centres (ITCs), falls under the ambit of the Ministry of Labour and Employment through the Directorate General of Employment and Training (DGET). The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up in November 1945, as a national level apex advisory body to conduct survey on the facilities on technical education and to promote development in the country in a coordinated and integrated manner. And to ensure the same, as stipulated in, the National Policy of Education (1986), AICTE be vested with statutory authority for planning, formulation and maintenance of norms and standards, quality assurance through accreditation (The National Board of Accreditation (NBA) was set up by the AICTE in September 1994, for the purpose of assessment of Quality and Accreditation of Technical programmes in India), funding in priority areas, monitoring and evaluation, maintaining parity of certification and awards and ensuring coordinated and integrated development and management of technical education in the country.
With respect to industrial/vocational training, the Directorate of General Employment and Training (DGET) is the apex organisation for development and coordination at the national level for the programmes relating to vocational training with curriculum being set and implemented by the National Council for Vocation Training (NCVT). There are also several initiatives being undertaken by various other ministries and agencies of the central and state governments.
There are close to 1.3 million schools in India with a total enrolment of over 227 million students right from the primary school (Standards I to V) to higher secondary schools (Standards XI and XII). Given that a large proportion of students drop-out at primary school level (at Standard V) and at middle school (at Standard VIII), it is evident that a large portion of the capacity and enrolment is up to these two levels of education.
The country has witnessed a steady increase in the gross enrolment ratio; a steady decrease in drop-out rates, and a steady increase in the enrolment in education. The drop-out rates between standards I to X have fallen from about 67 per cent in 2000 to about 62 per cent in 2006. The enrolment in education in India has witnessed a compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of about 3.3 per cent, with high and higher secondary education (Standards IX-X and standards XI-XII respectively) recording a higher growth rate of 5.4 per cent.
In addition to the above, there is also a vocational education stream. The Vocational Education Programme (VEP) is offered through the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). However, the vocational education stream has a capacity of only about 22,000 students. Even if the entire capacity under NIOS is considered, this totals to about 3 lakh students only. As is obvious, Open schooling and vocational education contribute a minimal portion of the enrolment as compared to regular schooling (without a ‘vocational’ component).
Higher education in India comprises the colleges/institutions of arts, science and commerce (general college education), engineering, management, architectural, medical, polytechnics, others (law, integrated management, etc.), apart from education directly delivered by universities, institutions of national repute (such as National Institutes of Technology) and research institutions. The total enrolment in different years of study in higher education in India is about 14.3 million students. It should be noted that diploma polytechnics are also categorised under higher education. The number of higher education institutions has grown at a CAGR of 11.1 per cent between 2002 and 2006 while the enrolment in higher education has grown at a CAGR of about 13 per cent.
Vocational training in India is being offered by the DGET under the Ministry of Labour and Employment. The DGET is the apex organisation for development and coordination at national level for the programmes relating to vocational training. Vocational training is primarily imparted through Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) and Industrial Training Centres (ITC). The administration of Industrial Training Institutes rests with the state governments/union territories administrations (as this is a concurrent subject as per the constitution of India).
While vocational training would seek to build marketable skills in the workforce, there is also a need to ensure that there exists a strong system where vocational skill building is imparted as a part of education i.e. as evidenced by a need for a strong and vibrant vocational education system. This is expected to be an important focus area going forward to serve the needs of those who would miss out on education and or formal vocational training.
By Dr SK Baral